Trichoderma viride

Trichoderma viride Pers.

Hypocrea rufa (Pers.) Fresin
Hypocrea aurantiaca Henn
Hypocrea coprosma Dingley
Hypocrea atrogelatinosa Dingley
Hypocrea albo-medullosa Doi
Hypocrea muroiana Hino & Katsumoto

Trichoderma lignorum Tode ex Harz


Trichoderma viride is a very widely spread cosmopolitan species (far North, alpine areas, tropical areas) and it is very resistant.

This species has been isolated from various substrates and habitats such as:
•    algae
•    wood (sound, decomposing)
•    synthetic materials (plastic)
•    paper
•    food products (cereals, tomatoes)
•    soil
•    textile (cotton)


    It is a reference strain for the following standards:
    •    NF X 41-514
    •    NF X 41-517
    •    NF X 41-520
    •    NF X 41-600

Description and growth

On Malt-Agar growth medium (MA) (initial pH 5) – Fast-growing colonies, lumpy, white at first and then becoming dark-green in some areas. The mould heterogeneously spreads onto the Petri dish. The reverse is orange-yellow. The phialides form clusters of two or four and are 8-14 x 2-3 µm. The globose and granular conidia are 3.5-4.5 µm in diameter. Possible presence of chlamnydospores of up to 14 µm. The pH of the medium slightly increases but remains acidic (final pH 6).

On Czapek growth medium (initial pH 6) – Slightly slower growing colonies than on the other media, gelatine-like almost transparent (slightly white). The reverse is cream in colour. The growth of the species basidifies the pH of the medium (final pH 9).

recto - 26°C

verso - 26°C

On CYA growth medium (initial pH 6) – fast growing colonies, lumpy, white and green in some random areas. Cream reverse. The growth of the species basidifies the medium (final pH 9).

recto - 26°C

verso - 26°C

T.viride ne se développe pas à 37°C.

Development on different materials.

Photos: Trichoderma viride cotton paper and textile (cotton).

Trichoderma viride sur papier (coton)

Trichoderma viride sur textile (coton)

Trichoderma viride sur textile (coton)

Trichoderma viride sur ?


The optimum growth temperature is of 20 to 28°C. A good growth is also observed at 6°C and 32°C. Some rare exceptions of growth have been observed at 37°C, but none at 0°C. The mortality thermal point in soil ranges from 49 to 55°C for 30 minutes.

The pH needs to be between 1.5 and 9, the optimum pH being at 4.5-5.5.

The DNA analysis shows the specie contains 49.5-51 % of GC.

A wave length between 430 and 490 and/or 320 and 380 nm enhances the sporulation.
Copper ions enable the formation of coloured structures.
A high salt concentration in the medium inhibits the germination of conidia, but not the mycelial growth.

Several insecticides are efficient against T. viride:
•    DDT
•    aldrine
•    dieldrine
•    endrine
•    carbaryl

The conidia are quite resistant to gamma rays.


T. viride is significantly cellulolytic.

Synthesized compounds:
•    amylases
•    cellobiases
•    cellulases
•    emodin
•    endo 1,3 β-cellulases
•    endo 1,3 β-glucanases
•    endo 1,3 β-xylanases
•    endo β-1-4-hydrolases
•    exo-glucanases
•    gliotoxin
•    griseofulvin
•    cyclic polypeptide (antibiotic)
•    proteases
•    suzukacillin (antibiotic)
•    cyclic tichotoxin (antibiotic)
•    trichodermine
•    trichothecine (antibiotic)
•    β-D-xylopyranosidases
•    β-glucosidase

Most sugars are good carbon sources except D-arabinose which is less favourable.


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