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Trichoderma viride

Microscope
Anamorph
Trichoderma viride Pers.

Teleomorph
Hypocrea rufa (Pers.) Fresin
Hypocrea aurantiaca Henn
Hypocrea coprosma Dingley
Hypocrea atrogelatinosa Dingley
Hypocrea albo-medullosa Doi
Hypocrea muroiana Hino & Katsumoto

Synonym
Trichoderma lignorum Tode ex Harz

 
Generalities

Trichoderma viride is a very widely spread cosmopolitan species (far North, alpine areas, tropical areas) and it is very resistant.

This species has been isolated from various substrates and habitats such as:
•    algae
•    wood (sound, decomposing)
•    synthetic materials (plastic)
•    paper
•    food products (cereals, tomatoes)
•    soil
•    textile (cotton)


 
Substrates
 
Enzymes
 
Standards

    It is a reference strain for the following standards:
    •    NF X 41-514
    •    NF X 41-517
    •    NF X 41-520
    •    NF X 41-600
     

 
Description and growth

On Malt-Agar growth medium (MA) (initial pH 5) – Fast-growing colonies, lumpy, white at first and then becoming dark-green in some areas. The mould heterogeneously spreads onto the Petri dish. The reverse is orange-yellow. The phialides form clusters of two or four and are 8-14 x 2-3 µm. The globose and granular conidia are 3.5-4.5 µm in diameter. Possible presence of chlamnydospores of up to 14 µm. The pH of the medium slightly increases but remains acidic (final pH 6).



On Czapek growth medium (initial pH 6) – Slightly slower growing colonies than on the other media, gelatine-like almost transparent (slightly white). The reverse is cream in colour. The growth of the species basidifies the pH of the medium (final pH 9).



recto - 26°C

verso - 26°C

On CYA growth medium (initial pH 6) – fast growing colonies, lumpy, white and green in some random areas. Cream reverse. The growth of the species basidifies the medium (final pH 9).



recto - 26°C

verso - 26°C





T.viride ne se développe pas à 37°C.


Development on different materials.

Photos: Trichoderma viride cotton paper and textile (cotton).



Trichoderma viride sur papier (coton)

Trichoderma viride sur textile (coton)

Trichoderma viride sur textile (coton)

Trichoderma viride sur ?

 
Biology

The optimum growth temperature is of 20 to 28°C. A good growth is also observed at 6°C and 32°C. Some rare exceptions of growth have been observed at 37°C, but none at 0°C. The mortality thermal point in soil ranges from 49 to 55°C for 30 minutes.

The pH needs to be between 1.5 and 9, the optimum pH being at 4.5-5.5.

The DNA analysis shows the specie contains 49.5-51 % of GC.

A wave length between 430 and 490 and/or 320 and 380 nm enhances the sporulation.
Copper ions enable the formation of coloured structures.
A high salt concentration in the medium inhibits the germination of conidia, but not the mycelial growth.

Several insecticides are efficient against T. viride:
•    DDT
•    aldrine
•    dieldrine
•    endrine
•    carbaryl

The conidia are quite resistant to gamma rays.



 
Biochemistry

T. viride is significantly cellulolytic.

Synthesized compounds:
•    amylases
•    cellobiases
•    cellulases
•    emodin
•    endo 1,3 β-cellulases
•    endo 1,3 β-glucanases
•    endo 1,3 β-xylanases
•    endo β-1-4-hydrolases
•    exo-glucanases
•    gliotoxin
•    griseofulvin
•    cyclic polypeptide (antibiotic)
•    proteases
•    suzukacillin (antibiotic)
•    cyclic tichotoxin (antibiotic)
•    trichodermine
•    trichothecine (antibiotic)
•    β-D-xylopyranosidases
•    β-glucosidase

Most sugars are good carbon sources except D-arabinose which is less favourable.



 
Bibliography

Botton B, Bretton A, Fevre M, Guy Ph, Larpent JP, Veau P (1985) Moisissures utiles et nuisibles -importance industrielle. Collection biotechnologies. Edition Masson. p 200-203, 212, 220, 292, 305, 306, 332.

C.A.B. International Mycologial Institute (1984) Biodeterioration 6. Proceeding of the sixth international biodeterioration symposium. p 83, 132, 253, 269, 303, 364, 638

Cahagnier B, Dragacci S, Frayssinet C, Fremy JM. Hennebert GL, Lesage-Meessen L, Multon JL, Richard-Molard D, Roquebert MF (1998) Moisissures des aliments peu hydratés. Lavoisier Tec & Doc. p76

Domsh KH, Gams W, AndersonT-H (1993) Compendium of soil fungi (volume 1). Publication : IHW-VERLAG. p 803-809

Flieder F (1994) Recherches sur l’effet du Rayonnement gamma pour la désinfection des papiers. Actes des 2 èmes journées internationames d’études de l’ARSAG. Environnement et conservation de l’écrit, de l’image et du son. 16-20 Mai 1994 PARIS. p 79-86

Gallo F (1994) Recherche sur certains facteurs-clés dans la détérioration biologique des livres et des documents. Actes des 2 èmes journées internationames d’études de l’ARSAG. Environnement et conservation de l’écrit, de l’image et du son. 16-20 Mai 1994 PARIS. p 63-69

George L, Barron Ph-D (1972) The genera of hyphomycetes from soil. Robert E.KRIEGER publishing compagny. p 306

Hawksworth DL, Sutton BC, Ainsworth GC (1983) Dictionary of the Fungi. Seventh Edition. Commonwealth Mycologial institute. pp 445

Onions AHS, Allsopp D, Eggins HOW (1981) Smith’s introduction to industrial mycology. (Seventh Edition). British library cataloguing in publication data. p 158, 355.

Subramanian CV (1983) Hyphomycetes Taxonomy and Biology. published by Academic Press Inc. p 107, 109, 140, 141, 146, 157, 159, 161, 164-166, 231, 232, 255, 263, 294, 354, 355, 364, 367, 368, 396, 408, 409.